1. What, in your view, can we learn from Catiline and the Gracchi

1. What, in your view, can we learn from Catiline and the Gracchi brothers? Be sure in your answer to consider the issues (and controversy) surrounding the way that the Gracchi presented the problems of the time, as discussed in class.
2. Augustus, Res Gestae, 34:
In my sixth and seventh consulates (28-27 B.C.E.), after putting out the civil war, having obtained all things by universal consent, I handed over the state from my power to the dominion of the senate and Roman people. And for this merit of mine, by a senate decree, I was called Augustus and the doors of my temple were publicly clothed with laurel and a civic crown was fixed over my door and a gold shield placed in the Julian senate-house, and the inscription of that shield testified to the virtue, mercy, justice, and piety, for which the senate and Roman people gave it to me. After that time, I exceeded all in influence, but I had no greater power than the others who were colleagues with me in each magistracy.
Propaganda, or fact? Neither? Discuss, paying attention to, and agreeing or disagreeing with, our coverage of Augustus and his career, as presented to you in class.

lecture 4
First punic war: 264-241
–Result: 20 years of war
–Would need sth special from Rome or Carthage to win
–Carthage: mercenaries, but good navy
–Rome: excellent army, no well-established naval force
–Result: statement
–3 banks of oars
–Corvus (boarding ramp)
Quinquereme is heavier, 5 banks of oars
Naval warfare in ancient world
–roman idea: make it a land battle, on water
–board using corvus/raven (but problems)
–physically seize enemy ships, or ram them
–armoured sailors cannot swim very well
Polybius, on the corvus
–Roman shipbuilding program-superhuman effort
–But now, had to learn how to fight at sea-no real experience
–Would have plenty of upsets, errors (storms too)
— in the meantime:
–256: 2 consuls Africa; ambitious, war on Carthaginian territory
–Plunder of countryside; 1 cos. Home, Other remained:
–Marcus atilius regulus
–255: defeated Carthaginians; camped at Tunis
–Negotiations, rejected by Rome
–Spartan mercenary, Xanthippus- replaced local commanders
–Romans crushed; regulus captured
–romans crushed; regulus captured
–With regulus- what is true and what is legend?
–Deal with humiliation by mythologizing it!
–Ex. Romans defeated b/c of massive snake
–Legend- in captivity until 250
–Gave parole to Carthaginians; sent to Rome to negotiate
–In his speech to senate- urged no surrender
–Returned to Carthage met his end
–Regulus: reluctant here, duty> personal need
–source: Horace-reliable?
–Ode 3.5; titled, no surrender
–Warning to lax romans of his own day
–Holds up regulus as ideal model
–Intensely patriotic in period of civil war
–Regulus death
–Xanthippus, and the leaky ship
–All of this: Romes north African invasion- not a success
–More setbacks for Rome
–254: fleet to Africa, rescue survivors
–Defeated Carthaginian fleet, but then massive storm
–Romans massive effort at Panormus-Sicily
–250: lucius caecilius metellus, army, crushed Carthaginian attack
–Huge triumph in rome, with 100 elephants
–But then chickens
Drepanum, 249, western coast of sicily

Publius Claudius pulcher
–Frustrated by progress of siege of Carthaginian base at lilibaeum (western Sicily)
Decided to take offensive
Auspieces: the sacred chickens
Let them drink, since they dont want to eat
Result: romans suffered horrible defeat
Pulcher accused of sacrilege for killing scared chickens
–War dragged on to an end with reverses/benefits for each side
–241: Romans finally achieved naval victory, off Sicily
–Carthaginian commander: Hamilcar peace treaty
–Indemnity: triggered mercenary revolt
–The truceless war savage
–Rome took opportunity: Sardinia
–Carthage shattered
–Sent Hamilcar Barca (father of Hannibal) to Spain rebuild
Would lead to new struggle
Consequences of the war
Four main consequences
1. Carthage lost Sicily, Sardinia, paid reparations
–Rome now held territory outside of Italian peninsula
–Lead to garrisons on Sicily, Sardinia and also Corsica
–Needed administrators: praetorship expanded, sent overseas
2. widescale change in conduct of warfare
–Previously Rome followed seasonal pattern: some experience
–Now consistently kept armies in field all year round
–Polybius Romans ambitious more daring, thinking of conquest
3. Rome now a naval power
–Needed too for control of ex. Corsica, Sardinia
–Allowed Rome to project power outside Italy
4. Significant increase in public spending: ships, armies
–Army had logistical needs
–Spawned rise of contractor class the publicani, paid by the state to build, supply, house,
procure, etc.
–Currency expanded, more issues: coins now also used to advertise Roman power (ex. Coin of
prow of ship) propaganda
The second Punic war 218-201
The triumph of duty over individualism
–Defining event of the roman republic before the civil wars
–Significant and far-reaching consequences
–Main sources: Polybius, Livy
–Lived 59 BC AD 17-200 years after events f
–From Padua
–Knew personally Romes first emperor, Augustus
–Whole work: cover beginning of Rome own day ex. 753-19, in 142 books- only 36 survive
–Livy looked to various traditions
–Oratory and fine writing: Cicero a model
–Livy famously lazy, would not cross Rome to see a document
–Sources? Other writers- make major use of Polybius
–Selected and compiled info to suit his agenda
–Often never mentions who he is using
–Livy writing after gut-wrenching civil war
–Aim: react to this dislocation by concentrating on values which made Rome great
–Superior virtue, morality

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–Character and courage of Romans
–Other sources
–Hannibals court historians lost
–Letters and treaties, copied by Polybius
— Writings of Scipio family?
Major players in story dramatis personae
The Scipios
The Barcids
–NB: multiple Scipios
–Publius Cornelius Scipio
–Consul 218; died 211
–Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus (the bald)
–Brother of Publius Cornelius Scipio
–Consul 222, died 211
–Piblius Cornelius scipio africanus
–Son of Publius Cornelius Scipio, nephew of Gnaeus
–Ultimate victor in second Punic war
–The other tem- the Barcids
–Hamilcar Barca, general of 1st Punic war, d. 228, Spain
–Father of Hannibal
–Husdrubal the fair
–Son- in law of Hamilcar, d. 221
–Husdrubal Barca, general
–Brother of Hannibal, d 207, Italy
–Mago Barca, general
–Brother of Hannibal, d 203, on board ship
Hannibal- not a crazed demon
–Had read memoirs of Pyrrhus
–Barcid dynasty in Spain Hellenistic style dynasty
–Closer to Greek king than monster
–Adept at Greco-Roman propaganda
–Temple of Melqart (Hercules) in Grades (Cadiz, Spain)
–12labours of Hercules: drove oxen of Geryon though Spain and Gaul over the Alps
–Cacus (giant) on Aventine hill- steal oxen, Hercules killed him
Punishment of Rome – grounded in Greek myth
Posed as liberator of oppressed Greeks in Sicily, Italy
–And: epic journey- like Alexander?
–War broken down in phases:
1, background to war- Barcids in Spain
2, period between 218-216: Roman defeats
3. period between 216-207: revival
–War in Italy, propaganda campaigns by Hannibal
–War in Spain
–War in Africa
And in this: the triumph of duty, but the rise of the individual Scipio Africanus
Background- the interwar years, 241-218
–End of 1st Punic war
–Hamilcar surrendered Mt. Eryx in Siciy
–Mass resentment
–And Truceless war (mercenary revolt)- future damage
–Barcids powerful, choose Spain, new lease on life
–Mines. Manpower, new beginning nova Carthage
Spain would revive Carthage
–228: Hamilcar dead; Hasdrubal the fair took over
–At some point: Hasdrubal, treaty with Rome
–Boundary of interests: river Ebro

–clues: Romans preoccupied with Gauls (Italian Celts)
–And also: war in lllyria (pirates, death of ambassador- and now new protectorates)
–Lllyrian war= first protectorates in Greece
–Romans at lsthmian Games
–So: Roman policy curb Carthaginians in Spain, secure lllyria, hammer Gauls?
–Before, during, after treaty- fateful decision
–Some kind of agreement, based in fides, with Saguntum
–Hannibal attacked Saguntum, south of Ebro river- not in violation of treaty
–But quandary for Romans
–Friendship bounded by fides with Rome
–What to do? Honor treaty to far away people, or let them face fate?
–If go to war, could trigger wider war
–In do nothing, would allow Hannibal to get stronger
–Or- part of the plan all along
–The polish Guarantee, 1939
–218: Saguntum surrendered
–Roman Senate: dithered; delegatin to Hannibal
–Eventually, Roman envoys Carthatge
–Livy: Hannibal urged senate in Carthage to give up their treaty to provoke a war
Surrender, sack of saguntm= plays into faous story Hannibal oath to hate Rome
–War not roman fault, Hannibals falur
–Carthaginians; rejected Roman demands and war began 218
–Roman response: both consuls dispatched for war
–Sent Publius Cornelius Scipio (cos. 218; father of Scipio Africanus) to Spain
–Other cos. Tiberius Sempronius Lougus, sent to Sicily: target, Africa, and Carthage
–Which did Hannibal do
–Understood his own strengths, weaknesses
–Would invade Italy, over the Alps (new Hercules/ Alexander)
–Very dangerous endeavor
–lack of mechanized transport
–Precedence- Alexander the Great, Khawak pass in Afghanistan
–Hannival would face huge problems, take many losses of men, animals, equipment
–Some allies deserted, rather than cross Alps
–Hostile tribes in Alps would add to problems
–Scipio: would contest Hannibals crossing of phone river, southern France
After this, way open to Alps
Again, problems with allies, more, soldiers: more afraid of Alpine crossing than fighting Romans
Livy: took 5 months for entire journey; 15 days, for Alpa
Considerable losses
Cape lacinium inscription: 20,000 infantry, 6,000 cavalry- tiny
Floored Romans
First confrontation
Ticinus River, 218 BC, northern Italy
Hannibal: suborn Gauls, fight for him- liberator of Italy
Ticinus 218
Lecture 5
Trebbia 218
Romans did best, but sempronius should have waited
Tired; elephants; great pressure on line; December rain muddled thins
Ambush by Mago
Romans were broken, although troops and both consuls escaped
But, major military disaster

After the Trebbia, 218
Romans shocked
Enemy in Italy
Two engagements lost, significant parts of army destroyed
But, what did romans have?
Product of early years, wars of expansion, conquest of Italy
Polybius: Romans had huge manpower reserves
Reports census figures for 225: 700K (or 634K)
Of Romans alone :
250000 adult males qualified for infantry service
23000 adult males of equestrian standing cavalry
table illustrates sources
other clues: the bronze plate at temple of Hera Lacinia at Croto in S. Italy (Cape Lacinium): 20K
infantry, 6K cavalry, copied by Ploybius
Hannibal: major disadvantages
For Hannibal to win
Not destroy Rome
Crush it on battlefield make peace ( norm in Hellenistic world)
Manpower advantage? Use propaganda
Dismantle alliances
..nearly worked
217 new year, new consuls, new defeats
consuls for 217
Gnaeus Servilius Geminus (Servilius)
Gaius Flaminius Nepos (Flaminius)
Better job? Not to be
Why ?
Flaminius: populist, opposed Senate
Tried to curtail financial activities of senators
Showed lack of respect for mos maiorum: customs of the elders (i.e. respect your forefathers, they
are older and wiser)
Tension between old and young a major theme in Livy
They were right would die in a very famous Roman disaster
Livy uses Flaminius poor character to explain his fate
Sempronius: showed hubris, lost
Flaminius: did not show Senate, elders.
What did Flaminius do?
Mad chase after Hannibal
No reconnaissance
Walked into trap
217 lake trasimene
Hannibal: well- prepared position; plenty of time
Forced romans to fight facing lake or mountains
Blocked exits: could only leave by narrow paths
Romans advanced onto plain; no security; did not notice Carthaginians; false camp to lure romans
Problems with fog
Romans in marching order; weapons slung; not ready for battle
Attacked from all sides
Flaminius killed
Very serious
Romans in shock; consul dead; exits blocked
Many drowned in the lake
Livy: 6000 escaped, only to surrender
Effect in Rome: terror at news of consuls death

Worse to come
Time of great emergency: what would Senate do?
217 emergency measures
the defence of Italy had faied the war would now be at home to save the city
senate appointed famous dictator
quintus fabius maximus
cunctator, the delayer
QFM emerges as literary foil against upstart, impetuous, young politicians
Later ally: cato the elder (famous conservative)
QFMs strategy: harass supply lines; pick fights carefully; avoid a repeat of Trebbia or Lake
Servilius (other consul) helped to defend Rome: implicit comparison with Flaminius
Livy: was QFMs strategy working?
Frustrating for some not to fight. E.g. minucius, master of cavalry (2 nd in command) for QFM
Elected as co-dictator, nearly loses life
For Livy: minucius recalls Flaminius, Sempronius: reckless, impetuous, arrogant, young, and
But QFM s strategy working
Tensions between Minucius and QFM
Livy & Polybius : character couplets
Old, wise vs young, foolish
Patient vs reckless
Previews: optimates vs populares in late Roman society
Eventually QFMs position ended: return to consuls
Results? Good for Rome
Character: sold estates to ransom POWs
No major disasters, but people wanted victory.
216 disaster
216 quintus fabius maximus retired; new consuls
gaius terentius varro (varro)
Lucius Aemilius Paullus (Aemelius Paullus)
Varro: like sempronius, like Flaminius
Unpopular with patricians
Populist, left- wing
Did not like QFM
Aemilius paullus = opposite of varro political opponent older, wiser, ex-consul (IIIyrian war)
He and Varro are like gladiators: competitors
Livy uses sour relations presage a new disaster
Away from senate, romans recruiting new armies
But new omens
Statues weep blood
Cold springs become hot
And worse.
Warro did have initial success
Like sempronius.cocky, bold
Aroused in him the passion to defeat Hannibal: make his name
Hannibal: knew he could lure varro into an ambush
Use romes aggressive/impetuous leadership against them
Eventually the two sides met at cannae, in Apulia

Before Adrianople (AD 378) this was the most notorious roman disaster in history
Aemilius paullus was killed in battle
Problem: romes maniples, bad leadership
More shook for rome: a consul killed, 80000 (?) soldiers killed in one day: eight legions and their
allies the size of four entire consular armies
What else?
Servilius geminus, ex-consul, killed
Minucius, ex-master of horse to QFM, killed
A large number of senators who had volunteered to fight.. lost in the battle
Varro? He escaped
Survivors- punishment battalions
Famous escapee- scipio
For perspective : Ammianus Marcellinus, on Adrianople (AD 378)
Death of emperor valens
Destruction of eastern field army
What did Hannibal do
Did not follow up by marching on rome
But: did he intend to capture it?
But the victory was, in any case, total
Cannae: had some important consequences
Some roman allies deserted them (hennibals strategy)
Anti-roman sentiment
e.g. capua, treaty with carthage: would share Italy as part of a Carthaginian protectorate
Tarentum, thurii- defected
Sicily: hiero of Syracuse died; Hannibal fomented an uprising there serious
Romans: cancelled festivls looked to religious rites to appease the gods
Buried alive Greeks and Gauls
Fabius pictor ( famous roman historian) sent to the oracle at Delphi
What did the gods want the romans to do
New legions
For the first time, boys under 17; 8000 slaves as well
How did rome get through all this
Strength of character
Loyalty of the majority of their allies
Support and courage of the people
Indefatigable senate: never gave up
Out of this calamity, romes identity would be forged
Restoration and revival: 216-202
Rome rebuilds
New problems, but new leaders: including Scipio Africanus
Would undertake the reconquest of Italy
Fight actions abroad, in spain and Africa
New tactics, new legions, new army
And threat: to heart of state
Hannibal: wanted romes allies
Achieved capua; failed elsewhere
Behind this: factional politics
In rome: a new dictator
Disasters continued: e.g. consul-elect killed on campaign- Lucius postumius (L.23.24)
So: rome facing not just Hannibal, but multiple enemies but still they keep going
Stories in livy show: romes hold on Italy thenuous

Hannibal: plans elsewhere
215: new front opened in IIIyria, against Macedonia ( 1st Macedonian war)
Hannibal and Philip V of macedon
Treaty copied by Polybius: curb Roman power, not destroy it
Slowly, rome asserting itself
Rewards loyal allies; punish the ones that strayed
War much wider in scope than anything seen so far
213: rome began reconquest of Campania: capua
capua: a terrible revenge
leaders executed
but even now, other problems
running out of cash
time of crisis- senate gave up property, gold, silver
allies gave all they had
just enough to keep going
eventually, romans recovered Campania .
209: QFM captured and sacked Tarentum
30000 inhabitants: sold
capua and Tarentum showed: terrible price of defiance
so by 209: capua, Campania, Tarentum, Sardinia: all quiet
in sicily, Claudius Marcellus
siege of Syracuse famous: defence orchestrated by Archimedes
military ideas some seem to have worked, others perhaps
finally, Marcellus prevailed
Archimedes famously killed by a roman soldier
His legacy?
Archimedes palimpsest
Restoration and revival: 216- 202
Syracuse sacked brutally
Romans took agrigentum, other major city
Corn supply secured, sicily pacified
The final years
Long a sideshow to Italy
212: roman forces, led by scipo(father)
scipio killed; gnaeus scipio (calvus) quickly followed
great shock
again, Romans able to take stock, regroup: on the verge of annihilation, they survived
Romans still lacked a consular commander…
who would take scipios place
Livy no- one put name forward:
Another desperate situation: needs a bold solution
Too young; lacked experience to be a consul
Major break with tradition
Elected as a private citizen with imperium
What was scipio like?
Very pious; a performer; and semi-legendary in his own lifetime
211: scipo went to spain

used his reputation, family authority, to help him
210/209: captured new carthage
daring raid soldiers crossed lake myth, helped by Neptune
follow up battles: llipa, baecula
major theme: new tactics, new flexibility, new abilities
and, diplomacy: suborn massinissa, syphax, numidian allies
208, at baecula similar tactics
defeated Hasdrubal, fled to Italy
scipio roman army now instrument to beat Hannibal
competent generalship
innovative tacitics
use of cavalry (Laelius)
maniples as independent operators
Carthaginians: looked for a decisive endgame in Italy
208 Roman consuls were Marcellus ( of Syracuse fame) and crispinus
at venusia, in Apulia, han

Lecture 6
Restoration and revival: 216-202
The final years
New dictator: Manlius
New consuls elected:
207: combined forces to faced Hasdrubal. In northern Italy
Livy: dramatic evocation of scene
forced march of picked troops, to get to Hasdrubal (Hannibal brother) before message could get
to Hannibal
Hannibal stranded in S. Italy: defeat a matter of time
Could not get reinforcements
No easy access to supplies
Could not duplicate Romes alliance system
Could not detach allies permanently
Romans ascendant
Looked to the gods: went to Delphi: and then brought cult of Magna Mater, The Great Mother, to
Scipio finally elected as consul in 205
Plunder: nearly 15,000 lbs of silver
Another result of the wars: enrichment
and, a further direct consequence: the need to keep successful generals in field
—Pro-consuls, pro-praetors
—Recognition of need to change system
—Annual commands counter-productive
—More consuls, praetors needed
Scipio nursing great ambition
Asked to be sent to Sicily: to get him to Africa
But, QFM

—Youthful arrogance of Varro, Flaminius, Sempronius, Minucius
—Naked ambition
—Dangerous recklessness
Scipio finally got his way
Senate hampered him withheld troops, money
What did he do?
—Volunteers, Cannae legions
—Fleet from Romes allies
—Took them to Sicily
Scipio ravaged countryside
With Massinissa, beat Carthaginian levies
Peace agreed, then scupper
Hannibal recalled, along with Mago
Livy, 30.20: Hannibal furious
Before the final flight at Zama:
Livy has the 2 meet: a very famous speech
–Appeals to Scipio, compares himself to him
–Hannibal old, Scipio young
–Hannibal wiser: needs peace
–Lost his brothers; defending his native city; asking for peace
–Carthage is the aggressor
–Too late to ask for peace
–Youre finished
Scipio and Hannibal prepared their forces
Scipio innovative
Difference at Zama- Laelius and Massinissa, with cavalry
Hannibal lost his first battle
Zama a resounding Roman success
Scipio treated Hannibal well, let him stay in politics
Carthage sued for peace in the aftermath
Negotiations including Philip V- Mac. Soldiers at Zama
And the Romans told Philip:
The answer received from the roman senate was anything but favorable. They were told that their
king was looking for war, and if he went on as he was doing, he would very soon find it.
An omen of things to come
Eventually, Carthage made peace
Terms harsh
—Gave up elephants, warships, most of army
—Scipio burned the fleet in vies of the Carthaginians
—Allied deserters beheaded; Roman deserters crucified
—Huge indemnity: crippled Carthage for good
Roman allies (ex. Massinissa) were rewarded
Scipio: triumphant return to Rome
What did he do?
Scipio set an ominous precedent
Paid a huge war bounty of 123,000 lbs of silver to his troops
Idea: loyalty to commander, not to state
Took epithet Africanus
Scipio: 3rd c. BC celebrity imperator, a victor with assent of the gods
Dangerous idea:
—Loyalty to commander > loyalty to state
—Beginning of individualism > duty
—Shape of things to come

—Eventually fell out in Carthage
—Romans came for him he fled to Antiochus, Hellenistic ruler of Syria
Consequences of second Punic War
Carthage was crippled
Rome: new, stronger version of itself: on brink of Med domination, fuelled by militaristic ideology
and flush with a hard-won victory
All overseas Carthaginian territory now Roman and new admin needed so new praetors, new
campaigning to pacify Spain, new settlements: definite expansion
Romes constitution changing: new praetors, pro-consuls, pro-praetors: the beginnings of the
imperial administration
Romes reputation increased
In 216, Rome was on brink of extinction. How was this avoided?
–Resourced (think Pyrrhus)
–Allies (think Pyrrhus)
–Good commanders
–Core of resilience in the Senate, the people: the SPQR
The 2nd Punic War is a major event in understanding how Rome became an Empire later on, and
understanding Roman Identity confident, militaristic
–Rome defeated Hannibal by:
–Staying strong
–Honoring the gods
–Staying true to the state
–Following its moral principles
–Rome was threatened by young, arrogant, impious men
–L. admires Africanus, he sees in him some of the traits of his own time
Starship troopers
Tension: duty vs. life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness
Society of citizens and civilians
Roman imperialism
Expansion and creation of a world empire
Imperialism in 2014 has an image problem can we avoid a negative judgment?
Would Romans understand our idea of imperialism?
Roman expansion: deliberate acquisition of territory for commercial gain?
Land-grab rush incompetition with others?
Think of France, England, Belgium, Germany, in Africa, for ex
Romans would probably be perplexed if we assigned our idea of imperialism onto them
How should we understand it?
Influential perspectives:
V.I. Lenin: Imperialism. The highest state of Capitalism
Come down to Defensive Imperialism vs. Expansionism
Accidental vs. Deliberate
Take a look at each
Defensive Imperialism
Until recently: dominant idea
Wars conducted in self-defense
Can we find justification in ancient texts? Sure!
Theme here:
Romans concerned about aggressive stance of neighbors ex. Carthage
Defensive imperialism thesis very popular: ground

Idea held sway until 1970s
New ideas
W.V. Harris: war and imperialism in republican Rome, 327-70 BC
Basic idea: Rome accustomed to continuous war benefits from war accrued, kept war going
Cf. Schumpeter keep fighting, keep winning, keep fighting to keep winning
Art, slaves, influence, power, money, land all came with victory in war
Evidence in ancient sources? Of course!
Expansionism? Or Accidental/ Defensive?
So: which idea do we favor?
—Romans placed value on martial activities
—Cursus honorum included vital military steps
—Supreme civil authority = supreme military authority
—Warfare central to functioning of state
What about moder historians, their views?
Mommsen: 19th cent. German interested in German nationalism
Saw Romans: united Italy like Germany was being united
Gave Roman conquest a positive spin
And Harris? Deeply affected by Vietnam War overseas adventures are bad, and lead to serious
Difficult to know which 1 we should favor
Rome: bad enemies Gauls, Carthage
90 serious defeats recorded in the republic
Almost became extinct in 2nd P.W.
Romans: can we understand their fear, apprehension? Does this justify pre-emptive strikes?
Buthistory of late republic is full of ambitious men, looking for military glory Pompey,
Caesar, Sulla, Marius: we will meet them all
No clear answer some case studies!
Main powers in Mediterranean
Created in aftermath of Alexanders death in 323
Hellenistic kingdoms
East (Iraq/Iran all the way to Afghanistan, India): Seleucids (after Seleucus Nikator…

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